at the moment of the Big Bang who was the energy borrowed from?
in regard to my comments on “virtual particles and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle”.
It’s an interesting question. According to some schools of cosmology, the net energy of the universe is zero. Therefore there’s no need to borrow energy for the universe as a whole, although one might need a little bit to get the process started. This is one of the attractions of a flat universe, which is the result of many models where the net energy of the universe is exactly zero. That would be in many ways the most elegant solution, but reality doesn’t always oblige us in that way.